9 Life Lessons Warren Buffett Gave Me

Books, Thoughts

Robert Kiyosaki was the first person to make me think about my financial future. I was very young and I didn’t have the habit of reading. In school they always make you read some books to try to make you interested in reading. The main flaw in their approach is that they choose totally inappropriate books. I know they are books that have a social and historical importance, but when you are 13 the last thing in your mind is history and society. If they want to make children interested they should try giving them something really interesting. Teenagers won’t get the depth of complex issues. You have a bunch of 13 year old kids in your class, give them some spaceships, monsters and semi nude woman, that will make them read it to the end. Well, back to the topic. At 15 I had never really got to the end of a single book, not even the school ones. Preparing to go on a 6 hour bus trip and browsing through some comics at a book store, I saw Robert Kiyosaki’s “Rich dad, poor dad”. I saw it and thought “why not?”. Bought the book and read it during the trip. It fascinated me at the time. Now, I don’t know what you think of Kiyosaki, and I know his books present a distorted vision of many things, but I must admit that, at 15, his book gave me an insight that changed everything for me, and I recommend it.

Many books after that I bought Warren Buffet’s biography, “The snowball: Warren Buffett and the business of life”. A magnificent work of art from Alice Schroeder.

Warren Buffett

Warren Buffett

As almost anyone who bought it, I wanted to discover how did he get from almost nothing, to richest man in the world. These are some of the things I learnt:

Thrift – Every penny counts. Sometimes it looks like it doesn’t, but in fact it does count. If you can get the best price on something, get it! Don’t be afraid of asking for a discount, it is your money and you probably didn’t get it easily. Now, there is a book called “Economia 3D” from Martin Lousteau, Argentina’s former financial minister, which cites a curious behaviour of ours when we buy stuff. In the biography, sometimes it looks like Warren is excessively tight-fisted, bargaining for a sixteenth of a cent at the price of stocks, an amount that, at the quantity he was buying in this specific occasion, wouldn’t save him more than 100 dollars (out of millions), but he knew it still was 100 dollars. Lousteau says that when you go buy a pair of shoes, and at a store 2 blocks away it is 10 pounds cheaper than the one near you, you would probably walk the 2 blocks. But if you are buying a 50′ TV, and it is 10 pounds cheaper at a store two blocks away, you certainly wouldn’t go there to save the 10 pounds. Why is that? It happens because we see the money as part of a total. So, if 10 pounds represents 1% of the total amount, it doesn’t matter, but if it is 30% of the final price, then it becomes really important. It is an illusion, money is a fungible asset. It means that if I have a 10 pounds note, and you have another 10 pounds note, regardless of the fact that they are two independent notes, they both have the same value. 10 pounds is worth 10 pounds if it is part of a million or part of twenty pounds, learn to save it.

Business people are not heartless evil bastards – The economist Thorstein Veblen, in his book The Theory of the Leisure Class, depicted a gloomy bourgeoisie. At his sight business people were cheaters, liars, dodgers, always trying to take advantage of everyone, people who lacked character and sense of ethics. A view that, as well pointed out by Robert Heilbroner, was in fact true in most of the cases at his time (1899). In late nineteenth century that wasn’t that true anymore. Nowadays business people greatly value good character, honesty and trustworthiness. To be a respectable business person you can’t lack these qualities. Indubitably, there are still lots of cheaters and dodgers gaining lots of money, places like wall street are proof of that, but their number is getting smaller every day.

Warren Buffett and his life are proof of this truth. One of the main factors that led him to better places, bigger deals, and good connections was his honesty. His honesty was witnessed by his partners and passed forward by them. He built a reputation, and by his reputation was recognised and rewarded. No one likes dishonest people. No one likes people who are not trustworthy. Plato in his dialogue The Republic, masterfully demonstrates the advantages of justice, as opposed to injustice. It is stressed that the unjust will act unjustly with both just and unjust, and that if two unjust try to relate to each other, each trying to take advantage of the other, they will reap separation as consequence of their injustice, and separation from everyone will lead to stagnation. It is also shown that even a group of unjust people set out to perform unjust acts, like pirates in their piracy or a country in the attempt to enslave another country, would never have success in their enterprise if there were not justice between themselves. Thus concluding that no goal can be achieved without justice. True in life, true in business.

If you are smart, you can do anything – Warren, the man of simple tastes, often asked his employees for hard things. They maybe didn’t have a clue of where to begin, but he wasn’t bothered by that. As he says, he believes that if you are smart, you can do anything. And that’s completely true. Louis Jacques Fillion has a famous definition for “entrepreneur”, he says “The entrepreneur is a person who creates, develops and accomplishes a vision”. I have a simpler version which I like better, it is “The entrepreneur is a person who makes things happen”. In my short experience trying to set up a micro company and make its business plan, I faced a scenario very unlike those presented to me in high school and university. There was no guideline, I had to go and do stuff, if it wasn’t possible I had to find a way, everything was hard and subjective, I could do things anyway I wanted, but I should have in mind that every single wrong choice I made would cost me a lot. Facing this sight I felt like I was the worst and less prepared person on earth, that I was useless and that there was no way I was going to make it to the end. I was lazy, a bit shy and had no negotiation skills at all, I thought I was doomed and I thought it 10 times a day. But one thing I didn’t think; I never thought I was dumb. If there was anything my family got to stick to my mind, was that I am intelligent. They repeated it so much that I wound up believing it. And here is one of the richest men in the world saying that if I am smart I can do anything. It motivated me, and in the end I really finished the business plan.

Chicó and João Grilo (Selton Mello and Matheus Nachtergaele, respectively), characters of the film O Auto da Compadecida. In the film, João Grilo accomplishes the impossible just using his brain.

If you are smart you will find a way. And you don’t even have to be truly smart, it is enough if you believe you are smart, and you’ll be able to do anything.

Be good at what you do – Buffett bought his hometown newspaper, the Omaha Sun, and with it he won the Pulitzer prize. In one occasion a friend wanted him to manage his company, Warren was reluctant but in the end he accepted to do it in his spare time. The friend was happy anyway, he knew that if Warren was going to do it at all, he would do it well. Be like this! Warren Buffett didn’t get where he are because he was lucky, he got there because he was great on what he did. Let people say they know that if you are going to do something, you are going to do it well. It doesn’t matter if you want to play with puppets, if you do it well you will have success.

People sometimes look at rich people with a certain envy , maybe even stating that they are not worthy of all that. But the fact is that those who got there by the work of their hands are in fact worthy of their achievements. They are people who are good at what they do (of course there are those who are born rich and are good for nothing, but if you want to improve you should stop looking at them and pay more attention to those who built fortune out of nothing. Because in the end, if you are envy you are probably closer to nothing than to rich).

What is that that you do better that anyone else? If you don’t know you should start thinking about that.

Entrepreneurship – “Entrepreneur is a person who makes things happen”. When Warren wanted something, he found a way to do it. In his time he didn’t have internet to search for things, but still he went through the darkest lists to find the more underground companies in a price that was good to him. He found them, he went to their headquarters and talked to people there, he searched and found important information about them, everything without a single computer. Sometimes it was hard, sometimes people didn’t want to pay attention to a weird tight-fisted boy from Nebraska. But still he kept going on and insisting and trying, again and again. That’s entrepreneurship. You don’t have to be a founder of a company or a CEO to be an entrepreneur — In fact Warren Buffett himself never found a company, only investment partnerships. Entrepreneurship is to go and change things, make things better. If you take action and solve a problem, or improve something, without anyone ask you to do it, then you are being an entrepreneur.

Remember, your salary is determined by the problem you solve. If you want a promotion, show your boss you can solve more, or bigger, problems. Or you may want to start a business; starting a company is not for everyone, it is a risky venture. But remember, who takes more risks gets bigger profits. It is completely possible, and certainly easier, to get ahead and have a good money in a normal job, but if you think there is a problem you can solve better than anyone else, if there is a business in your mind that burns in your chest, go for it!

Once in an interview for PBS, Steve Jobs said something that is indeed an ode to entrepreneurship. Amazingly motivational. Deserves to be quoted ipsis-litteris, and here it is:

“When you grow up you tend to get told the world is the way it is and your life is just to live your life inside the world. Try not to bash into the walls too much. Try to have a nice family life, have fun, save a little money.

That’s a very limited life. Life can be much broader once you discover one simple fact, and that is – everything around you that you call life, was made up by people that were no smarter than you. And you can change it, you can influence it, you can build your own things that other people can use.

The minute that you understand that you can poke life and actually something will, you know if you push in, something will pop out the other side, that you can change it, you can mold it. That’s maybe the most important thing. It’s to shake off this erroneous notion that life is there and you’re just gonna live in it, versus embrace it, change it, improve it, make your mark upon it.

I think that’s very important and however you learn that, once you learn it, you’ll want to change life and make it better, cause it’s kind of messed up, in a lot of ways. Once you learn that, you’ll never be the same again.”

Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs

Unbending meritocracy – Uoh, this guy can be unbending sometimes. In the book there is a term that is often used — to buffett. To say that someone was buffetted meant that the person had to give in to Warren’s insistence, be it in stock negotiation, child raising or anything. He had strong opinions about money and inheritance, he didn’t agree with dynasties, he believed that everyone should work hard to achieve their goals. He was totally against people who made money and left everything for their children. Children should make their own money. Later on in life he did give in a little bit, settling with the following idea: “Give your children money enough to do anything, but not enough to do nothing”. He did pay his children education, but little more than that. In the end he donated most of his fortune to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In formal studies, never forget the big picture – Warren graduated on the University of Nebraska–Lincoln but was little worried about his diploma. Afterwords he went to Columbia Business School and got his Master of Science in Economics diploma, but did this just because his admired authors Benjamin Graham and David Dodd gave classes there. He wanted to learn stuff, not to have a paper saying he studied 3 or 4 years somewhere. You see some CEOs and business people who are very successful and don’t have a undergraduate degree, and also see a lot of people with a bunch of degrees unemployed. It happens because people lose focus, they forget that the purpose of a determined course in university is to teach you something, and that what these institutions in fact offer you is a set of information they gathered that they believe are important and could help you to perform a specific office. Let’s give a special attention to the part that says “they believe are important”. Many universities, mainly in very dynamic fields like computation, teach obsolete stuff, that can’t help much and could be learnt much faster and better outside the classroom.

I am not in any way against universities, but I think that the way people look at them should be tweaked a bit. James Altucher has a different opinion, he thinks parents shouldn’t send their kids to university at all. He has a small book called 40 alternatives to college (click to read the ebook).

The early bird catches the worm – The other day on twitter I asked Marco Gomes, a young entrepreneur, founder of a Brazilian publicity company called boo-box,  if he woke up every day at a specific time. He said he religiously woke up every single day at 7:30. Another manager of a big company (Which I really don’t remember who. But believe me, it is true) said in an interview that he woke up at 5 every day to read the newspaper before everyone else. Warren also woke up very early in the morning during his whole life. If you want to do stuff, to make things happen, you’ve got to wake up early. You have to be awake before the world’s gears begin to work.

Shepherds don’t think like sheep. If you think like everyone else, the best you can be is like everyone else. Wake up early, be ahead of everyone else when the word open his eyes in the morning.

Simple is better – If you are in charge of people in your company, or if you own a company, or if you want some day to own a company, or if you are just curious, or if you are neither of these things, you should read Jack welch’s book Winning. The content of the book is marvellous, but the way it is written is just enchanting. It looks like a friend of yours is talking to you in a barbecue about things that happen in businesses. He uses informal language, and is very clear and concise in his points. He stresses that candour and clarity are critical to the functioning of every part of a company. I’d like to go further and broaden this idea, stating that candour and clarity are indispensable not only in companies, but in every part of our life. The way he achieved such clarity was saying things in a easily understandable way, trying not to use complicated words or constructions that could be misinterpreted in some way. Warren Buffett did exactly the same during his whole life. Everywhere you see a quote from Warren you will notice that the language he used wasn’t any far from that we use in our day to day. It is very easy to complicate things, but it’s laborious to make it simpler.

As for my financial future, God only knows. One thing is sure, Warren Buffett’s life taught me these and many other things, but I don’t remember all of them now and I don’t have the book in my hands to give it a look and remember everything — and you wouldn’t read a ten thousand words post anyway.

I hope these principles can be of some use to you, just as they were of great use to me, made me improve. We are changing every day, and our future is determined by what we do today.

warren-buffett

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So, What’s The Way To Decide?

Thoughts

I’m moving to another country in three weeks. Everything I accumulated during 20 years will have to fit in two 23 Kg suitcases and a 5 Kg handbag. I will leave a lot of stuff behind. But do you know what is the best thing? The best is that I could use just one of the 23 Kg ones and I would be happy. The most precious things I have are my books, my guitar, my Buzz Lightyear toy, the photos and songs in my hard drive and the picture frame my girlfriend gave me. If I can take that with me I will be satisfied.

I always thought that what gives value to people are qualities they would still have if they were naked in the middle of the desert. Be rich, have good taste for clothes, play well the piano, drive like Speed Racer. These are things that can impress a lot of people, but who are you when there is no wealth backing you up or status drawing a line between you and them, or no audience to regard you as a credible person?

Actually, that’s quite unfair. People have great qualities that can shine only when there’s something else in the scene. Like a good talker, a good negotiator, a good writer or good listener. These are qualities many people, myself included, seek to learn, and they can add value to the bearers lives and to society, but invariably need the presence of things (like other people) to have value.

People very often create a set of expectations over a subject, and then, after that, they create a prejudice.  People want to get in shape, they hear they have to do exercises, they see that people sweat when they exercise, and then they think that if they are sweating they are exercising. That may seem like a dumb example, but we actually do that much more often than we think.

When we draw that kind of silly conclusions we are trying to define the content of something by looking at its form. It’s like fever! Fever is not an illness. When you go to the doctor he doesn’t say “yeah man, you got a Fever, take this ice cube”. That’s because fever is the by-product of a real problem. You can almost assure that if someone has some specific illness, then this person will have fever. But it would be foolish to state the opposite.

Well, that’s exactly what we  do when we invert form and content. And when a huge group of people, sometimes our whole world, have this wrong perspective, we tend to believe that’s the real deal, the truth (remember your “whole world” is everything and everyone you know, not more than that).

Warren Buffet cites Benjamin Graham’s advice in his biography:

“You’re neither right nor wrong because other people agree with you. You’re right because your facts are right and your reasoning is right”

Benjamin Graham

Based on these prejudices, people often-times look more to the form than to the content of some stuff. Here is my top ten list of form-content inversion and an attempt to explain how it happens.

Relationships – Undoubtedly the most recurrent topic in young minds — and not so young too. People have defined relationships in their heads with what happens in relationships instead of with what really is a relationship. On internet you see a bunch of images of people hugging or kissing, with a sepia effect and a moving phrase; all of them supposedly showing how a relationship should be like. And then, when it’s time to have a relationship, the girl assumes the “role” of the girlfriend and the boy the “role” of the boyfriend. From friends to boyfriend and girlfriend they have a drastic change in behaviour instantly. The girl feels she should ~behave like the girlfriend~.

That’s adopting the form of the thing, Mimic the movements of someone else, someone else’s experience. Relationships should be spontaneous! You don’t have to act like that just because that’s the way couples do, you should act in a way that makes you feel good; not focusing the form of a relationship but its content, its meaning.For example, a form-oriented couple and a content-oriented one walk on the street. Both are walking hand on hands with their respective partner. One couple thinks: “we have to change our facebook status, we have to spend more time together, we have to watch romantic films in the theatre; we ought to do all that cuz that’s what a couple does”. And the other one thinks: “I’d love to tell everyone that I found you, ill change my facebook status so people will know it faster; It was so good being with you, I can barely wait to see you again; Hey Star Wars episode VII is out! how about we see it instead of it’s boring romance competitors?”.

One is guided by what they want to do, and the other one by what they think they should do. Well, not surprisingly, the wrong interpretation brings along problems. This flawed conception creates undue fears like insecurity. A good example of a content and meaning-focused instead of form-focused film, is undoubtedly “When a Man Loves a Woman”. What a great film!

The thing is that some people see relationships as a structured model they should adapt to if they want to partake of its feelings banquet. When in fact, relationship is just a name for what happens when two friends like each other so bad they would like to kiss. If your partner is not your best friend, then that can be a big warning that maybe you are living the form-focused paradigm.

Religion – Needless to say that the conception people have of religion is wrong time and time again. Even religious people sometimes can’t get this one. And the worse thing is when someone tries to explain the subject to someone else and either makes it more confuse, or explains it wrong.

I’m a Christian. With Christianity the idea is simple, there’s a book that states some values, we gotta follow that. Some people ,attempting to bring more people to think alike, build big places and gather great amounts of people. Nothing wrong with that; actually, that’s the idea. But people are used to routines, and when you are dealing with other people there must be order or else you won’t get anywhere.

The problem arises when people are so worried about the routines and customs, and they come from so long ago, that people forget the real purpose for which the habits were adopted. Then they start to think that the customs are the real thing, and forget about the values. And that’s what generates the bunch of controversy we see everywhere. And that’s how they invert form and content.

Formal Studies – I’ll go straight to the point: Formal Studies are overrated.

People go wild when they hear this, but that’s the ugly truth. They get pissed off in front of such a statement because if they did’t go to University they at least want their children to go. And they don’t really think about all the pros and cons of  choosing to study or not . But that’s a discussion for another post, let me focus on the  inversion.

Nowadays a graduate degree is almost essential. There are specifications on whatever your mind can imagine. That’s very different from 60 years ago, when superior studies were not only uncommon but rare. With the increasing demand, the Universities’ supply augmented but the quality of the new players were not exactly the best.

Once that two people doing the same job have different salaries if one of them has a degree and the other hasn’t , people begun to look at graduate studies as a degree instead of a place to learn to do something. As our world grows more and more capitalistic, people little by little lose sight of the idea of creating something, and replace it with a desired salary.

It is when the degree is regarded as more important than the own knowledge acquired that the content has been substituted by the form.

Advices and Advisors – Who do you listen to? When you hear an advice, what is the criteria of evaluation? Sometimes we get pretty bad advice from respectable people. Sometimes we can be well advised by some atypical people. Sometimes advices come well constructed and beautifully worded, but nonetheless wrong. And sometimes they come clumsy, but worth a listen.

The problem with this discussion is that everything depends on the person. Maybe you think that “Live fast, die young” is a good life philosophy. I’d certainly not agree with you, but we would be stuck in a dead-lock. But there is something in common between the two outlooks, and it is how we decide if a advice is good or bad for us. I’d like to highlight more the “for us”, because an advice is not inherently good or bad. It is good or bad for you. And your goals and your life expectations are the criteria to decide whether the advice is useful or not, for you.

“Don’t ever lie, to anyone” can be an excellent advice, this advice can make your career advance fast as you win a good reputation. But if you want to be an infiltrated agent in a foreign army, you will probably die if you follow this advice.

But we don’t have to go this far to find an example, simple and common sayings like “work a lot” or “get married, have children and buy a house” can be good or not depending on our goals. There are also advices that don’t really favour our goal, but show that perhaps we are treading the wrong path. That change our core ideas. And these are usually the most important ones. Because if you are heading to a cliff it’s better to change the way before you get there.

And here’s where it gets tricky. You are hearing someone saying that what you think is inherently wrong and that you should think differently. How do you decide who is wrong, if it is you or the adviser?

The inversion of form and content enters the scene here. When the way the argument is exposed matters a lot, and it can cloud the real consequences of believing it. Like the little child in a poor neighbourhood who is approached by a gangster, at his eyes a successful guy. And then the gangster conveys distorted values to the kid, and shows the life and the world as they are seen by him, a viewpoint he firmly believes is the only one right, and teaches the kid to behave in a way that leads to a cruel path. How can the kid ever go against such a convincing argument? He will grow and then at some point in his life he will be told the contrary. Maybe by someone who doesn’t look as successful as the gangster, but someone who understands that the values the grown kid now stands for are wrong. And he will have to weigh that. The form might not be pretty, but the content should not be ignored.

But again, that’s just my opinion. I think that a gangster is not qualified to educate someone to live in a fair, just and moral society. Even though our society is not like that, we should act as if it were. Because as long as we behave selfishly we will have a selfish society. But you might think otherwise anyway.

In the end we understand that to weigh advices’ contents we must have not only a set of goals, but a set of values. So, then you are able to separate the form of the message from its content, and are not deceived by its appearance. Now, philosophy has some great theories on that and I won’t go on into this subject now, the purpose here is just to stress the important difference between form and content in advices and advisors, and to point out the inversions that commonly occur.

If you would like to know more about society’s values I strongly recommend this video:

Is God Necessary for Morality? – William Lane Craig vs Shelly Kagan Debate

Shelly Kagan in the debate “Is God Necessary for Morality?” with William Lane Craig

Material things – Well, with stuff it is very simple, you pay a lot for something that isn’t really worth that much. And I’m not talking about paying for the design, I’m talking about paying for “reputation”.

Entertainment – I’m deeply disappointed with latin-american TV, the idea of adding value to society and being a mean of conveying information and healthy entertainment is lost. All you see are shows prepared to keep hypnotized fools. They show things that may attract us, but by no means are beneficial to us.

I loved to watch a show called Castelo Rá-tim-bum. It was great, I loved the characters, the people who were invited as special guests, it was  a great show. The great thing about it, although at the time I didn’t realised that, was that it showed the reality I, as a Brazilian kid, was used to seeing. It was produced by a channel called Tv Brazil — a far from popular channel. All the other channels with their audience explosions showed fake scenarios with fake people doing fake things. It was always a big and beautiful house with blond kids, and that’s definitely not the reality of 99% of Brazil. Castelo Rá-Tim-Bum showed barefoot kids playing in the street in many of their songs.

Besides showing my country’s reality it also transmitted a very good message. It taught kids the importance of taking a shower, importance of friendship, games to play with your friends and even taught how some things worked. Now I look at the “series” — that in fact are soap operas with teen sluts — that my sister watches on Nickelodeon and everything I can think is: Oh my God, my sister’s brain is being shitwashed. The series teach lies, deceiving, a lot of bad behaviour, stubbornness and selfishness, besides teaching how to be a teen slut too.

All the values are lost in this example. Now, I’m not saying there were anything like the ‘good old times’  were values were important and bla bla bla. No! As I said before, the channel that taught good things was an unpopular channel. Trash is being transmitted by mainstream channels since ever. I am also not saying that today there is nothing that provides good entertainment either. Disney-Pixar films like Toy Story, Nemo, and Brother Bear are here to prove that.

Form and Content – People can even mix up form and content. Let me be clear, form is not bad. It is not bad to look at the form of something, the form is part of the whole. The problem is when a product, or a person, or a situation, or whatever, is accepted just because of the form. And that’s what was happening in most of the situations above. But wouldn’t it also be bad if we chose stuff just because of the content?

The form is the way the content looks like, or the way it is transmitted. Now, imagine if I’m a super genius and I will give you a class. The things I will say will blow your mind, but I will give this class for 19 hours straight. I will have no dynamic at all in my speech, there will be no break and you will have to be standing the whole time.

Will this class be good? You will probably enjoy the first 30 minutes, or even the first hour, but after some time the situation will be unbearable. The content is still great, but the form is bad. So, the class, which is the combination of both, is bad.

Nowadays people think that it’s cool if you have something that no one else has. Some people try to run from the mainstream. “Oh it’s a great band, they are sooo underground, it is just a guy and a recorder, the guy never had a singing lesson in his life and has no talent at all, but he’s sooo deep”. “Oh this film is slow, ugly and has terrible acting but what a good plot!”.

Things are made of form and contend, if one of the two is missing, value is lost.

Books – I have a bit of a controversial opinion on books. You see a bunch of people everywhere bragging about having read a book before seeing it’s film, or bragging about being passionate about reading. That by itself has no sense! It is not because the trash you are consuming is written in a book that it will magically turn into wisdom.

People think that the fact that they read, no matter what, makes them intelligent in some way; not only intelligent, but more intelligent than those who don’t read.

The flaw in this conception is the widely spread prejudice that the form, a book, is by itself enough to make the content valuable. That’s a fallacy. Reading does have inherent benefits; it improves your grammar and — that’s highly dependant on what you’re reading — gives you better text interpretation skills.

Hence, although reading has intrinsic advantages it does not guarantee that you are getting smarter as you read; actually you could get dumber if you read some stuff.

People – This one is easy, you look at the person and judge her right away. It’s not your fault, it is an instinct, everyone has it, and it’s in you for a reason. The reason is protection. For the same reason our mind is set to consider any kind of secretion and excrement as disgusting and nasty, so that we don’t get close. It is set this way because these things can be harmful to us, and if we didn’t think they were nasty we would probably eat, drink, or have some kind of contact with these stuff, and then we would get sick.

Our brain works almost the same way when it comes to people. It’s a defence mechanism. We are programmed to accept people who have more in common with us more easily. That’s why there is racism , that’s why you see poor against rich, women against men, nation against nation, and so on. We are prejudiced by nature. But that’s obviously not an excuse. We are also violent by nature, polygamous by nature and jerks by nature, and that doesn’t mean that we are fated to act like that. We grow in a civilised society and learn to control our instincts. That’s why we are the ones pastoring sheep, not the other way around.

You judge people the moment you see them, but that’s not the problem here — that can even be a good thing, you should use you prejudices to guide you in a first approximation to the person. The problem arises when you think that your first impressions are right. And that’s when you invert form and content.

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I’m sad to say that I lied about the top ten, as you can see there’s only nine items in the list. But that can be your homework. What do you think has an inversion of form and content?

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As for my trip, I firmly believe that my 23 Kg suitcase, in spite of its clumsy way, will hold a far bigger value to me than its form can reveal.